A Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of Health Behaviors and Wellbeing During COVID-19

Montse Ruiz, Tracey Devonport, Chao-Hwa Chen-Wilson, Wendy Nicholls, Jonathan Cagas, Javier Fernandez-Montalvo, Youngjun Choi, Claudio Robazza

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


This study explored the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived health behaviors; physical activity, sleep, and diet behaviors, alongside associations with wellbeing. Participants were 1,140 individuals residing in the United Kingdom ( = 230), South Korea ( = 204), Finland ( = 171), Philippines ( = 132), Latin America ( = 124), Spain ( = 112), North America ( = 87), and Italy ( = 80). They completed an online survey reporting possible changes in the targeted behaviors as well as perceived changes in their physical and mental health. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) on the final sample ( = 1,131) revealed significant mean differences regarding perceived physical and mental health "over the last week," as well as changes in health behaviors during the pandemic by levels of physical activity and country of residence. Follow up analyses indicated that individuals with highest decrease in physical activity reported significantly lower physical and mental health, while those with highest increase in physical activity reported significantly higher increase in sleep and lower weight gain. United Kingdom participants reported lowest levels of physical health and highest increase in weight while Latin American participants reported being most affected by emotional problems. Finnish participants reported significantly higher ratings for physical health. The physical activity by country interaction was significant for wellbeing. MANCOVA also revealed significant differences across physical activity levels and four established age categories. Participants in the oldest category reported being significantly least affected by personal and emotional problems; youngest participants reported significantly more sleep. The age by physical activity interaction was significant for eating. Discussed in light of Hobfoll (1998) conservation of resources theory, findings endorse the policy of advocating physical activity as a means of generating and maintaining resources combative of stress and protective of health. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Ruiz, Devonport, Chen-Wilson, Nicholls, Cagas, Fernandez-Montalvo, Choi and Robazza.]
Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Early online date12 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Reprinted in: MacIntyre, T. E., Green, J. A., Beckmann, J., Lane, A. M., Vaughan, R., Morris, R., Murphy, E., Kenttä, G., Brewer, B. W., Raalte, J. V., Calogiuri, G., eds. (2022). The Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Sport: Mental Health Implications on Athletes, Coaches and Support Staff. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA.
doi: 10.3389/978-2-88974-164-9


  • behavior change
  • coronavirus
  • food consumption
  • inactivity
  • resources


Dive into the research topics of 'A Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of Health Behaviors and Wellbeing During COVID-19'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this