A new approach to formulation of complex fuel surrogates

Nawar Al-Esawi, Mansour Al Qubeissi

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a new approach to the formulation of fuel surrogates in application to gasoline, diesel, and their biofuel blends (including blends of biodiesel/diesel and ethanol/gasoline). This new approach, described as a ‘Complex Fuel Surrogates Model (CFSM)’, is based on a modified version of the Multi-Dimensional Quasi-Discrete Model (MDQDM). The new approach is aimed to reduce the full composition of fuel to a much smaller number of components based on their mass fractions to formulate fuel surrogates. The formulated surrogates for gasoline and blended ethanol/gasoline fuels matched the data of the full compositions of the same fuels for droplet lifetime, surface temperature, density, vapour pressure, H/C ratio, molar weight and research octane number, using the CFSM. Also, the cetane number and viscosity of diesel and biodiesel/diesel blends were mimicked by their suggested surrogates. The results were verified, with up to 7.2% errors between the two sets of predicted droplet lifetimes: surrogates and full compositions of fuels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118923
Number of pages9
Early online date14 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Biodiesel
  • Combustion
  • Diesel
  • Ethanol
  • Fuel surrogates
  • Gasoline


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