A preliminary test of the four factor model using a dream ESP protocol

Chris A Roe, L Jones, C Maddern

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


The ganzfeld technique was adopted in parapsychology to test for ESP in the laboratory out of a recognition that altered states of consciousness may be particularly psi-conducive. Evidence from spontaneous cases suggested that instances of ostensible ESP were most common while dreaming and early experiments at the Maimonides Medical Center involving ESP in dreams were remarkably successful. In recent times, dream ESP protocols have been proposed that do not require REM monitoring and awakening of participants during dream periods, and so have obviated the need for complex equipment and resources, making this a more viable alternative. Probably the most investigated feature in recent dream ESP research has been target emotionality, with a number of studies reporting better performance with negative targets than with positive targets, and worst performance with neutral or low-affect targets, and we intended to replicate that finding. )
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-42
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Society for Psychical Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2007


Dive into the research topics of 'A preliminary test of the four factor model using a dream ESP protocol'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this