A worldwide analysis of beta-defensin copy number variation suggests recent selection of a high-expressing DEFB103 gene copy in East Asia

Robert J Hardwick, Lee Machado, Luciana Zuccherato, Suzanne Antolinos, Yali Xue, Nyambura Shawa, Robert Gilman, Lilia Cabrera, Douglas Berg, Chris Tyler-Smith, Paul Kelly, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Edward J Hollox

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticle

Abstract

Beta-defensins are a family of multifunctional genes with roles in defense against pathogens, reproduction, and pigmentation. In humans, six beta-defensin genes are clustered in a repeated region which is copy-number variable (CNV) as a block, with a diploid copy number between 1 and 12. The role in host defense makes the evolutionary history of this CNV particularly interesting, because morbidity due to infectious disease is likely to have been an important selective force in human evolution, and to have varied between geographical locations. Here, we show CNVof the beta-defensin region in chimpanzees, and identify a beta-defensin block in the human lineage that contains rapidly evolving noncoding regulatory sequences. We also show that variation at one of these rapidly evolving sequences affects expression levels and cytokine responsiveness of DEFB103, a key inhibitor of influenza virus fusion at the cell surface. A worldwide analysis of betadefensin CNV in 67 populations shows an unusually high frequency of high-DEFB103-expressing copies in East Asia, the geographical origin of historical and modern influenza epidemics, possibly as a result of selection for increased resistance to influenza in this region.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHuman Mutation
Volume32
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2011

Keywords

  • CNV
  • antimicrobial
  • defensin
  • influenza
  • paralogue ratio test

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    Hardwick, R. J., Machado, L., Zuccherato, L., Antolinos, S., Xue, Y., Shawa, N., Gilman, R., Cabrera, L., Berg, D., Tyler-Smith, C., Kelly, P., Tarazona-Santos, E., & Hollox, E. J. (2011). A worldwide analysis of beta-defensin copy number variation suggests recent selection of a high-expressing DEFB103 gene copy in East Asia. Human Mutation, 32(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.21491