The importance of modeling multi-component fuel atomization, heating and evaporation has been recognized in many studies. The predictions of these models are crucial to the design and performance of combustion engines. Accurate modeling is essential to the understanding of these processes and ultimately to improving engine sustainability and reducing emission. The interest in bio-fossil fuel blends has been mainly stimulated by depletion of fossil fuels and the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions that contribute towards climate change. This work presents a review of recent investigations into the heating and evaporation of multi-component blended fuel droplets in real internal combustion engine (ICE) conditions. The models consider the contribution of all groups of hydrocarbons in fossil (gasoline, diesel) fuels, methyl esters in 22 biodiesel fuels, and ethanol fuel. Diffusion of these fuel species, temperature gradient, and recirculation within droplets are accounted for. One important finding is that some fuel blends, for example B5 (5% biodiesel fuel and 95% diesel fuel) and E5 (5% ethanol fuel and 95% gasoline fuel), can give almost identical droplet lifetimes to the ones predicted for pure diesel and gasoline fuels; i.e. such mixtures can be directly used in conventional engines without modification.
- fuel blends