BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathies are a leading cause of progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac death; however, their genetic aetiology remains poorly understood. We hypothesised that variants in noncoding regulatory regions and oligogenic inheritance mechanisms may help close the diagnostic gap.
METHODS: We first analysed whole-genome sequencing data of 143 parent-offspring trios from Genomics England 100,000 Genomes Project. We used gene panel testing and a phenotype-based, variant prioritisation framework called Exomiser to identify candidate genes in trios. To assess the contribution of noncoding DNVs to cardiomyopathies, we intersected DNVs with open chromatin sequences from single-cell ATAC-seq data of cardiomyocytes. We also performed a case-control analysis in an exome-negative cohort, including 843 probands and 19,467 controls, to assess the association between noncoding variants in known cardiomyopathy genes and disease.
RESULTS: In the trio analysis, a definite or probable genetic diagnosis was identified in 21 probands according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. We identified novel DNVs in diagnostic-grade genes (RYR2, TNNT2, PTPN11, MYH7, LZR1, NKX2-5), and five cases harbouring a combination of prioritised variants, suggesting that oligogenic inheritance and genetic modifiers contribute to cardiomyopathies. Phenotype-based ranking of candidate genes identified in noncoding DNV analysis revealed JPH2 as the top candidate. Moreover, a case-control analysis revealed an enrichment of rare noncoding variants in regulatory elements of cardiomyopathy genes (p = .035, OR = 1.43, 95% Cl = 1.095-1.767) versus controls. Of the 25 variants associated with disease (p< 0.5), 23 are novel and nine are predicted to disrupt transcription factor binding motifs.
CONCLUSION: Our results highlight complex genetic mechanisms in cardiomyopathies and reveal novel genes for future investigations.
|Early online date||10 Nov 2022|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Nov 2022|
Bibliographical note© 2022. The Author(s).
- De novo
- Genetic Predisposition to Disease
- Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid