Experimental and Numerical Analysis on TIG Arc Welding of Stainless Steel Using RSM Approach

Sasan Sattarpanah Karganroudi*, Mahmoud Moradi*, Milad Aghaee Attar, Seyed Alireza Rasouli, Majid Ghoreishi, Jonathan Lawrence, Hussein Ibrahim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


This study involves the validating of thermal analysis during TIG Arc welding of 1.4418 steel using finite element analyses (FEA) with experimental approaches. 3D heat transfer simulation of 1.4418 stainless steel TIG arc welding is implemented using ABAQUS software (6.14, ABAQUS Inc., Johnston, RI, USA), based on non-uniform Goldak’s Gaussian heat flux distribution, using additional DFLUX subroutine written in the FORTRAN (Formula Translation). The influences of the arc current and welding speed on the heat flux density, weld bead geometry, and temperature distribution at the transverse direction are analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). Validating numerical simulation with experimental dimensions of weld bead geometry consists of width and depth of penetration with an average of 10% deviation has been performed. Results reveal that the suggested numerical model would be appropriate for the TIG arc welding process. According to the results, as the welding speed increases, the residence time of arc shortens correspondingly, bead width and depth of penetration decrease subsequently, whilst simultaneously, the current has the reverse effect. Finally, multi-objective optimization of the process is applied by Derringer’s de-sirability technique to achieve the proper weld. The optimum condition is obtained with 2.7 mm/s scanning speed and 120 A current to achieve full penetration weld with minimum fusion zone (FZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) width.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1659
Issue number10
Early online date19 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • tungsten inert gas welding
  • response surface method
  • finite element analysis


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