Influence of additives on the electrodeposition of zinc from a deep eutectic solvent

Andrew Ballantyne, Hasan Alesary, Salih Cihangir, Robert Harris, David Weston, Andrew Abbott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The effects of nicotinic acid (NA), boric acid (BA) and benzoquinone (BQ) on the electrodeposition of Zn have been studied in a choline chloride (ChCl) ethylene glycol (EG) based deep eutectic solvent (DES), (1ChCl:2 EG), and for the first time a bright zinc coating has been achieved when NA was used.
In metal electroplating processes, small-molecule additives are often
included in the plating bath to improve properties of coating such as brightness, roughness, thickness, hardness and resistance to corrosion. The effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from aqueous solution have been extensively investigated. However, very few studies have considered the effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from ionic liquids or deep eutectic solvents. The electrochemical properties of the
plating liquid have been studied here using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, chronoamperometry and microgravimetry (EQCM). Redox peak currents decrease when additives were included in the Zn solution and total charge was also reduced in experiments where additives were present. The Zn deposition in the absence of additive is in good agreement with an instantaneous growth mechanism at short experimental time scales (being indeterminate over longer periods), however, this changes to one of a progressive growth mechanism when additives were included in the coating bath. The current efficiency of zinc deposition in the DES without additives was 95%, which was reduced when additives were included. The resultant surface morphologies, thickness, topography, roughness and crystal
structure of the Zn coating were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating that those additives serve as effective brighteners that can produce highly uniform and smooth zinc deposits.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-130
Number of pages13
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume304
Early online date26 Feb 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

Fingerprint

Electrodeposition
Eutectics
Zinc
Ethylene Glycol
Niacin
Coatings
Zinc deposits
Surface roughness
Zinc coatings
Ionic Liquids
Chronoamperometry
Electroplating
Choline
Electrochemical properties
Plating
Topography
Cyclic voltammetry
Surface morphology
Luminance
Atomic force microscopy

Keywords

  • Electroplating
  • Zinc
  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Additives

Cite this

Ballantyne, Andrew ; Alesary, Hasan ; Cihangir, Salih ; Harris, Robert ; Weston, David ; Abbott, Andrew. / Influence of additives on the electrodeposition of zinc from a deep eutectic solvent. In: Electrochimica Acta. 2019 ; Vol. 304. pp. 118-130.
@article{e5f0c8eae51f47138d2f67c3a53d6a25,
title = "Influence of additives on the electrodeposition of zinc from a deep eutectic solvent",
abstract = "The effects of nicotinic acid (NA), boric acid (BA) and benzoquinone (BQ) on the electrodeposition of Zn have been studied in a choline chloride (ChCl) ethylene glycol (EG) based deep eutectic solvent (DES), (1ChCl:2 EG), and for the first time a bright zinc coating has been achieved when NA was used.In metal electroplating processes, small-molecule additives are often included in the plating bath to improve properties of coating such as brightness, roughness, thickness, hardness and resistance to corrosion. The effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from aqueous solution have been extensively investigated. However, very few studies have considered the effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from ionic liquids or deep eutectic solvents. The electrochemical properties of theplating liquid have been studied here using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, chronoamperometry and microgravimetry (EQCM). Redox peak currents decrease when additives were included in the Zn solution and total charge was also reduced in experiments where additives were present. The Zn deposition in the absence of additive is in good agreement with an instantaneous growth mechanism at short experimental time scales (being indeterminate over longer periods), however, this changes to one of a progressive growth mechanism when additives were included in the coating bath. The current efficiency of zinc deposition in the DES without additives was 95{\%}, which was reduced when additives were included. The resultant surface morphologies, thickness, topography, roughness and crystalstructure of the Zn coating were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating that those additives serve as effective brighteners that can produce highly uniform and smooth zinc deposits.",
keywords = "Electroplating, Zinc, Deep eutectic solvents, Additives",
author = "Andrew Ballantyne and Hasan Alesary and Salih Cihangir and Robert Harris and David Weston and Andrew Abbott",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.electacta.2019.02.090",
language = "English",
volume = "304",
pages = "118--130",
journal = "Electrochimica Acta",
issn = "0013-4686",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Influence of additives on the electrodeposition of zinc from a deep eutectic solvent. / Ballantyne, Andrew; Alesary, Hasan; Cihangir, Salih; Harris, Robert; Weston, David; Abbott, Andrew.

In: Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 304, 01.05.2019, p. 118-130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of additives on the electrodeposition of zinc from a deep eutectic solvent

AU - Ballantyne, Andrew

AU - Alesary, Hasan

AU - Cihangir, Salih

AU - Harris, Robert

AU - Weston, David

AU - Abbott, Andrew

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - The effects of nicotinic acid (NA), boric acid (BA) and benzoquinone (BQ) on the electrodeposition of Zn have been studied in a choline chloride (ChCl) ethylene glycol (EG) based deep eutectic solvent (DES), (1ChCl:2 EG), and for the first time a bright zinc coating has been achieved when NA was used.In metal electroplating processes, small-molecule additives are often included in the plating bath to improve properties of coating such as brightness, roughness, thickness, hardness and resistance to corrosion. The effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from aqueous solution have been extensively investigated. However, very few studies have considered the effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from ionic liquids or deep eutectic solvents. The electrochemical properties of theplating liquid have been studied here using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, chronoamperometry and microgravimetry (EQCM). Redox peak currents decrease when additives were included in the Zn solution and total charge was also reduced in experiments where additives were present. The Zn deposition in the absence of additive is in good agreement with an instantaneous growth mechanism at short experimental time scales (being indeterminate over longer periods), however, this changes to one of a progressive growth mechanism when additives were included in the coating bath. The current efficiency of zinc deposition in the DES without additives was 95%, which was reduced when additives were included. The resultant surface morphologies, thickness, topography, roughness and crystalstructure of the Zn coating were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating that those additives serve as effective brighteners that can produce highly uniform and smooth zinc deposits.

AB - The effects of nicotinic acid (NA), boric acid (BA) and benzoquinone (BQ) on the electrodeposition of Zn have been studied in a choline chloride (ChCl) ethylene glycol (EG) based deep eutectic solvent (DES), (1ChCl:2 EG), and for the first time a bright zinc coating has been achieved when NA was used.In metal electroplating processes, small-molecule additives are often included in the plating bath to improve properties of coating such as brightness, roughness, thickness, hardness and resistance to corrosion. The effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from aqueous solution have been extensively investigated. However, very few studies have considered the effects of additives on the electrodeposition of Zn from ionic liquids or deep eutectic solvents. The electrochemical properties of theplating liquid have been studied here using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, chronoamperometry and microgravimetry (EQCM). Redox peak currents decrease when additives were included in the Zn solution and total charge was also reduced in experiments where additives were present. The Zn deposition in the absence of additive is in good agreement with an instantaneous growth mechanism at short experimental time scales (being indeterminate over longer periods), however, this changes to one of a progressive growth mechanism when additives were included in the coating bath. The current efficiency of zinc deposition in the DES without additives was 95%, which was reduced when additives were included. The resultant surface morphologies, thickness, topography, roughness and crystalstructure of the Zn coating were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating that those additives serve as effective brighteners that can produce highly uniform and smooth zinc deposits.

KW - Electroplating

KW - Zinc

KW - Deep eutectic solvents

KW - Additives

U2 - 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.02.090

DO - 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.02.090

M3 - Article

VL - 304

SP - 118

EP - 130

JO - Electrochimica Acta

JF - Electrochimica Acta

SN - 0013-4686

ER -