Medial longitudinal arch development of school children: The College of Podiatry Annual Conference 2015: meeting abstracts

Jasper W. K. Tong, Veni P. Kong, Lily Sze, Susie Gale, John Veto, Carla McArdle, Thanaporn Tunprasert, Victoria Bradley, Siobhan Strike, Thanaporn Tunprasert, Victoria Bradley, Siobhan Strike, Robert Ashford, Roozbeth Naemi, Nachiappan Chocklingam, Xavi de Blasc, Lisa Farndon, Vicki Robinson, Emily Nicholls, Tabitha BirchIvan Birch, Simon Otter, Sunil Kumar, Peter Gow, Nicola Dalbeth, Michael Corkill, Kevin Davies, Sam Panthakalam, Maheswaran Rohan, Keith Rome, Chloe Egan, Lisa Chandler, Peta Tehan, Vivienne Chuter, Jennifer Sonter, Sean Lanting, Lorna Hicks, Christopher Joyce, David Watterson, Caroline McIntosh, Christopher Joyce, Nigel Roberts, Jacqueline Forss, Chrystalla Charalambous, Jack Kirby, Oluwakemi Ojo, Jacqueline Forss, Sarah Caukill, Jacqueline Capon, Radiance Fong, Louis Loy, Matthew Diment, Madeleine Murray, Mairghread Ellis, Carla McArdle, Peta Tehan, Vivienne Chuter, Christopher Oldmeadow, Nicola Carey, Karen Stenner, Heather Gage, Jane Brown, Peter Williams, Simon Otter, Ann Moore, Jude Edwards, Freda Mold, Molly Courtenay, Peta Tehan, Alan Bray, Vivienne Chuter, Pamela Hindmoor, Craig Gwynne, Sarah Curran, Andy Bridgen, Caroline Fairhurst, Joy Adamson, Belen Corbacho Martin, Sarah Cockayne, Catherine Hewitt, Kate Hicks, Anne-Maree Keenan, Lorraine Loughrey-Green, Hylton Menz, Anthony Redmond, Sara Rodgers, Jude Watson, David Torgerson, Robin Hull, Sarah Lamb, Caroline McIntosh, Wesley Vernon, Lisa Farndon, Lorraine Loughrey-Green, Sarah Cockayne, Anthony Redmond, Anne-Maree Keenan, Sara Rodgers, Lisa Farndon, Wesley Vernon, David Torgerson, Caroline Fairhurst, Jude Watson, Hylton Menz, Sarah Lamb, Robin Hull, Gavin Wylie, Zoe Young, Brian Williams, Frank Sullivan, Hylton Menz, Simon Ogston, Jacqui Morris, Cathy Bowen, Dorit Kunkel, Mark Cole, Margaret Donovan-Hall, Ruth Pickering, Malcolm Burnett, Dan Bader, Judy Robison, Louis Mamode, Ann Ashburn, Peter McQueen, Maxine Daniels, Michael Doherty, Nigel Arden, Cathy Bowen, Charlotte Dando, Lindsey Cherry, Cathy Bowen, Nichola Stefanou, Sarah Cockayne, Joy Adamson, Caroline Fairhurst, Catherine Hewitt, Anne-Maree Keenan, Sally Lamb, Lorraine Loughrey-Green, Caroline McIntosh, Hylton Menz, Anthony Redmond, Sara Rodgers, Wesley Vernon, Jude Watson, Lisa Farndon, Belen Corbacho, Robin Hull, David Torgerson, Begonya Alcacer-Pitarch, Anthony Redmond, Maya Buch, Anne-Maree Keenan

Research output: Contribution to JournalAbstractpeer-review


Background Foot structure is often classified into flat foot, neutral and high arch type based on the variability of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). To date, the literature provided contrasting evidence on the age when MLA development stabilises in children. The influence of footwear on MLA development is also unknown. Aim This study aims to (i) clarify whether the MLA is still changing in children from age 7 to 9 years old and (ii) explore the relationship between footwear usage and MLA development, using a longitudinal approach. Methods We evaluated the MLA of 111 healthy school children [age = 6.9 (0.3) years] using three parameters [arch index (AI), midfoot peak pressure (PP) and maximum force (MF: % of body weight)] extracted from dynamic foot loading measurements at baseline, 10-month and 22-month follow-up. Information on the type of footwear worn was collected using survey question. Linear mixed modelling was used to test for differences in the MLA over time. Results Insignificant changes in all MLA parameters were observed over time [AI: P = .15; PP: P = .84; MF: P = .91]. When gender was considered, the AI of boys decreased with age [P = .02]. Boys also displayed a flatter MLA than girls at age 6.9 years [AI: mean difference = 0.02 (0.01, 0.04); P = .02]. At baseline, subjects who wore close-toe shoes displayed the lowest MLA overall [AI/PP/MF: P < .05]. Subjects who used slippers when commencing footwear use experienced higher PP than those who wore sandals [mean difference = 31.60 (1.44, 61.75) kPa; post-hoc P = .04]. Discussion and conclusion Our findings suggested that the MLA of children remained stable from 7 to 9 years old, while gender and the type of footwear worn during childhood may influence MLA development. Clinicians may choose to commence therapy when a child presents with painful flexible flat foot at age 7 years, and may discourage younger children from wearing slippers when they commence using footwear.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-1
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2016


  • Arch Development
  • School Children


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