Performance at a Precognitive Remote Viewing Task, with and without Ganzfeld Stimulation: Three Experiments

Chris Roe*, Callum Cooper, L Hickinbotham, Andrew Hodrien, Laurrie Kirkwood, Hannah Martin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


Recent research by the lead author has sought to incorporate ganzfeld stimulation as part of a remote viewing protocol. An initial exploratory experiment (Roe & Flint, 2007) suggested that novice participants can successfully describe a randomly selected target location while in the ganzfeld but did not make a direct comparison with performance in a waking state. This paper describes a series of three subsequent experiments that compared performance at a remote viewing task in a waking condition with a ganzfeld stimulation condition using a counterbalanced repeated measures design. There were only minor variations in design across the three experiments to enable combination of data in a summary analysis. In total, 110 participants produced 43 hits in the ganzfeld stimulation condition (39.1%), giving a statistically significant positive deviation from chance expectation (sum of ranks = 225, p = .000012), whereas in the waking RV condition they achieved 30 hits (27.3%) which is marginally better than chance expectation (sum of ranks = 253, p = .034). The difference in z scores for target ratings in the two conditions approaches significance (t[39] = 1.865, p = .065). In experiment 1, individual difference measures identified as predictors of psi performance were unrelated to target ratings. Participants completed Pekala’s (1991) Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) in order to gauge their responsiveness to the ganzfeld protocol and of the 12 sub-dimensions tested, ganzfeld performance correlated significantly with greater absorption in their subjective experience, lower physiological arousal and less internal dialogue. In experiments 2 and 3 individual differences measure were replaced by measures of transliminality, openness to experience, and dissociative experiences, but these were also unrelated to task success. Data from experiment 2 did not confirm findings using the PCI from experiment 1, though a significant association was found with the time sense dimension. In experiment 3 no PCI dimensions were correlated with task performance, a pattern which was confirmed when data was combined across all three experiments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-65
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Parapsychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2020


  • Precognitive
  • Ganzfield
  • Parapsychology
  • Paranormal
  • Paranormal psychology
  • Consciousness


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