Policies and practices that foster education for all: Implications for Economically poor nations

Richard Rose, Ratika Malkani

Research output: Contribution to Book/ReportChapterpeer-review


International agreements which aim to achieve universal primary education for all children, regardless of need or ability, have ensured that governments around the world have considered policy development to support greater equity in education. Many of the world’s more economically advantaged countries have made significant progress to ensure that all children have opportunities to attend school. Progress has also been evident in countries which are less advantaged, though often this has been inhibited because of a lack of resources and expertise.
The relationship between policy, provision and practice in education is complex and in responding to international agreements governments have needed to take account of their own cultural and socio-economic circumstances. While many administrations have adopted models developed in other countries, the need to take account of existing practices and to build upon local expertise is apparent. This article considers two different approaches to developing policy both of which have been determined through an understanding of historical developments and in-country conditions. The circumstances of the two countries – India and Sierra Leone differ substantially and have influenced the choices which have been made about the models of policy development which they have deployed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOxford Encyclopedia of Inclusive and Special Education
EditorsUmesh Sharma, Spencer J. Salend
Place of PublicationOxford
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)978-0-19-090167-7
Publication statusPublished - 2 Aug 2021


  • Inclusive education; Policy development; India; Sierra Leone; Education for All


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