Presentation, Properties and Provenance: The Three Ps of Identifying Evidence of Contract Cheating in Student Assignments

Research output: Contribution to Book/ReportChapterpeer-review

Abstract

This chapter describes document features, properties and metadata that can occur in contract-cheated assignments submitted by students. This is based on the author’s experience as an Academic Integrity Officer at the University of Northampton, UK, since 2012, plus invaluable discussions with colleagues at the university and elsewhere. The material is divided into three sections. First, presentation, i.e. assignment features that are apparent when reading a document. Second, document properties, i.e. features not immediately apparent upon reading but which are readily inspected using document software’s built-in functionality. Third, provenance, i.e. embedded information in the document that requires investigation more deeply than using document software’s built-in functionality, but which does not require specialist tools.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationContract Cheating in Higher Education
EditorsSarah Elaine Eaton, Guy J Curtis, Brenda M Stoesz, Joseph Clare, Kiata Rundle, Josh Seeland
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Chapter12
Pages169–184
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-12680-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-12679-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Contract cheating
  • Commissioning
  • Ghost-writing
  • Essay mills
  • Document forensics

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