Radon as an anthropogenic indoor air pollutant as exemplified by radium-dial watches and other uranium- and radium-containing artefacts

Robin G M Crockett, Gavin K Gillmore, Gavin K Gillmore (Editor), Frédéric Perrier (Editor), Robin G M Crockett (Editor)

    Research output: Contribution to Book/Report typesChapterResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, e.g. radium-dial watches. This study is an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, and the radon that emanates from them. This includes radium-dial watches, the main focus, plus clocks, aircraft instruments, and ornaments and artefacts made of uranium glass / uranium-glazed. Such objects were very popular in the 1930s and 1940s and are still readily available today. A collection of 30 radium-dial pocket and wrist watches was measured and shown to be capable of giving rise to radon concentrations two orders of magnitude greater than the UK Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3 in unventilated or poorly ventilated rooms. Furthermore, individual watches are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level. We also highlight a gap in remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally-generated radon hazards. Radon as arising from man-made objects such as radium-dial watches should be considered appropriately in radon protocols and guidelines.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationRadon, Health and Natural Hazards
    Place of PublicationLondon
    PublisherGeological Society
    PagesSP451.4
    Number of pages256
    VolumeSP451
    ISBN (Print)9781786203083
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2018

    Publication series

    NameSpecial Publications

    Fingerprint

    radium
    indoor air
    radon
    artifact
    uranium
    hazard
    air pollutant
    health risk
    aircraft
    remediation
    glass

    Keywords

    • Radium
    • radon
    • watches
    • clocks
    • aircraft dials
    • uranium glass
    • uranium ceramics
    • health hazards

    Cite this

    Crockett, R. G. M., Gillmore, G. K., Gillmore, G. K. (Ed.), Perrier, F. (Ed.), & Crockett, R. G. M. (Ed.) (2018). Radon as an anthropogenic indoor air pollutant as exemplified by radium-dial watches and other uranium- and radium-containing artefacts. In Radon, Health and Natural Hazards (Vol. SP451, pp. SP451.4). (Special Publications). London: Geological Society.
    Crockett, Robin G M ; Gillmore, Gavin K ; Gillmore, Gavin K (Editor) ; Perrier, Frédéric (Editor) ; Crockett, Robin G M (Editor). / Radon as an anthropogenic indoor air pollutant as exemplified by radium-dial watches and other uranium- and radium-containing artefacts. Radon, Health and Natural Hazards. Vol. SP451 London : Geological Society, 2018. pp. SP451.4 (Special Publications).
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    abstract = "Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, e.g. radium-dial watches. This study is an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, and the radon that emanates from them. This includes radium-dial watches, the main focus, plus clocks, aircraft instruments, and ornaments and artefacts made of uranium glass / uranium-glazed. Such objects were very popular in the 1930s and 1940s and are still readily available today. A collection of 30 radium-dial pocket and wrist watches was measured and shown to be capable of giving rise to radon concentrations two orders of magnitude greater than the UK Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3 in unventilated or poorly ventilated rooms. Furthermore, individual watches are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level. We also highlight a gap in remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally-generated radon hazards. Radon as arising from man-made objects such as radium-dial watches should be considered appropriately in radon protocols and guidelines.",
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    author = "Crockett, {Robin G M} and Gillmore, {Gavin K} and Gillmore, {Gavin K} and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Perrier and Crockett, {Robin G M}",
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    Crockett, RGM, Gillmore, GK, Gillmore, GK (ed.), Perrier, F (ed.) & Crockett, RGM (ed.) 2018, Radon as an anthropogenic indoor air pollutant as exemplified by radium-dial watches and other uranium- and radium-containing artefacts. in Radon, Health and Natural Hazards. vol. SP451, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, pp. SP451.4.

    Radon as an anthropogenic indoor air pollutant as exemplified by radium-dial watches and other uranium- and radium-containing artefacts. / Crockett, Robin G M; Gillmore, Gavin K; Gillmore, Gavin K (Editor); Perrier, Frédéric (Editor); Crockett, Robin G M (Editor).

    Radon, Health and Natural Hazards. Vol. SP451 London : Geological Society, 2018. p. SP451.4 (Special Publications).

    Research output: Contribution to Book/Report typesChapterResearchpeer-review

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    A2 - Crockett, Robin G M

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    N2 - Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, e.g. radium-dial watches. This study is an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, and the radon that emanates from them. This includes radium-dial watches, the main focus, plus clocks, aircraft instruments, and ornaments and artefacts made of uranium glass / uranium-glazed. Such objects were very popular in the 1930s and 1940s and are still readily available today. A collection of 30 radium-dial pocket and wrist watches was measured and shown to be capable of giving rise to radon concentrations two orders of magnitude greater than the UK Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3 in unventilated or poorly ventilated rooms. Furthermore, individual watches are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level. We also highlight a gap in remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally-generated radon hazards. Radon as arising from man-made objects such as radium-dial watches should be considered appropriately in radon protocols and guidelines.

    AB - Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, e.g. radium-dial watches. This study is an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, and the radon that emanates from them. This includes radium-dial watches, the main focus, plus clocks, aircraft instruments, and ornaments and artefacts made of uranium glass / uranium-glazed. Such objects were very popular in the 1930s and 1940s and are still readily available today. A collection of 30 radium-dial pocket and wrist watches was measured and shown to be capable of giving rise to radon concentrations two orders of magnitude greater than the UK Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3 in unventilated or poorly ventilated rooms. Furthermore, individual watches are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level. We also highlight a gap in remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally-generated radon hazards. Radon as arising from man-made objects such as radium-dial watches should be considered appropriately in radon protocols and guidelines.

    KW - Radium

    KW - radon

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    KW - clocks

    KW - aircraft dials

    KW - uranium glass

    KW - uranium ceramics

    KW - health hazards

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    VL - SP451

    T3 - Special Publications

    SP - SP451.4

    BT - Radon, Health and Natural Hazards

    PB - Geological Society

    CY - London

    ER -

    Crockett RGM, Gillmore GK, Gillmore GK, (ed.), Perrier F, (ed.), Crockett RGM, (ed.). Radon as an anthropogenic indoor air pollutant as exemplified by radium-dial watches and other uranium- and radium-containing artefacts. In Radon, Health and Natural Hazards. Vol. SP451. London: Geological Society. 2018. p. SP451.4. (Special Publications).