Response to Howard (2018): Comments on ‘A Meta-Reanalysis of Dream-ESP Studies’

Christopher Anthony Roe, Lance Storm, Adam Rock, Simon Sherwood, Patrizio Tressoldi

Research output: Contribution to JournalComment/Debate


Dream-ESP is a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. We conducted a meta-analysis on dream-ESP studies (dating from 1966 to 2016), and found a number of significant effects indicating support for the ESP hypothesis (Storm et al., 2017). Howard (2018) critiqued our study, and found much weaker effects based on a re-analysis of our data, in which he applied inverse-variance weights to the study values. Although Howard replicated a number of our findings, his other findings can be challenged. We discuss meta-analytic approaches, including the controversial issues of publication bias and what to do with outliers, and we present some re-analyses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-152
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Dream Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2019


  • Dream-ESP
  • ESP
  • meta-analysis
  • psi


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