Sex chromosome complement regulates habit formation

Jennifer J Quinn, Paul K Hitchcott, Elizabeth A Umeda, Arthur P Arnold, Jane Taylor

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


Sex differences in brain function and behavior are regularly attributed to gonadal hormones. Some brain sexual dimorphisms, however, are direct actions of sex chromosome genes that are not mediated by gonadal hormones. We used mice in which sex chromosome complement (XX versus XY) and gonadal sex (ovaries versus testes) were independent, and found that XX mice showed faster food-reinforced instrumental habit formation than XY mice, regardless of gonadal phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1398-1400
Number of pages3
JournalNature Neuroscience
Issue number11
Early online date21 Oct 2007
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Animals
  • Antimanic Agents/pharmacology
  • Avoidance Learning/drug effects
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Disorders of Sex Development
  • Female
  • Genes, sry/genetics
  • Habits
  • Lithium Chloride/pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Sex Chromosomes/genetics
  • Sex Determination Processes
  • X Chromosome
  • Y Chromosome


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