Social Enterprise Evaluation: Implications for Tourism Development

Marcella Daye, Kawal Gill

Research output: Contribution to Book/ReportChapterpeer-review


The evaluation of social enterprise projects has focused mainly on devising effective performance measurement methods and processes to justify the investment of resources and time committed to such activities. With increasing demands for accountability, effectiveness, evidence of return on investment and value-added results, evaluation activities have been driven by imperatives of objectivity in assessments and the development of tools that monetize the social outcomes and impacts of social enterprise projects. These traditional approaches to evaluation have also been widely adapted in tourism based social enterprises that seek to attain goals of poverty alleviation, empowerment of local communities, and improved livelihoods for those marginalized from mainstream tourism economic activities. This chapter argues that traditional approaches to evaluation may be limited in supporting social entrepreneurship projects with development objectives of empowerment and societal change. It is proposed that social enterprise projects involving community participation may be better positioned to achieve their developmental objectives by incorporating more of the principles of Participatory Evaluation (PE) and Empowerment Evaluation (EE) in the quest to harness the economic prowess of tourism for human development.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSocial Entrepreneurship and Tourism
Subtitle of host publicationPhilosophy and Practice
EditorsPauline J. Sheldon, Roberto Daniele
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-46518-0
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-46516-6, 978-3-319-83534-1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

Publication series

NameTourism on the verge


  • Social enterprise
  • performance management
  • financial reporting
  • social impact accounting
  • tourism
  • participatory evaluation
  • empowerment
  • evaluation


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