The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance

M A Mina, Anthony J Blazevich, T Tsatalas, G Giakas, Laurent B Seitz, A Hooton, Anthony D Kay

Research output: Contribution to conference typesAbstractResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Introduction: The back squat exercise is a fundamental exercise for the development of lower limb strength and power. However, in successful attempts of one repetition maximum (1-RM), the upward barbell movement decelerates for a short period referred to as the “sticking point”. The inclusion of elastic bands (EB) minimises the loading during the early concentric phase, while maintaining average loading throughout the lift may limit the impact of the sticking point and enables the athlete to work more closely to maximal throughout a greater range of the lift. Objective: To examine the influence of free-weight resistance (FWR) and EB squat exercise following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent vertical jump (VJ) performance. Hypothesis: The use of EB during squatting following a comprehensive warm-up would:- (a) enhance subsequent VJ performance; (b) alter VJ mechanics; and (c) increase the neuromuscular activity of the lower limb extensor muscles, when compared to FWR. Methods: Fifteen active men (n=15) visited the laboratory on two occasions under experimental conditions (FWR or EB). After completing a comprehensive warm-up procedure, three maximal VJs were performed and then three consecutive back squat repetitions were completed at 85% of 1-RM using either FWR or EB. Three VJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min and 12 min later. During the VJs, knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force data and vastus medialis (VM), vastus (VL) lateralis and gluteus maximus (Glut) electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously using 3D motion, force platform, and EMG techniques, respectively. Results: No change in any variable was found after the FWR warm-up (p > 0.05). Significant increases (p < 0.05) were detected in CVJ height (5.3-6.5%), net impulse (2.7-3.3%), take-off velocity (2.7-3.8%), peak power (4.4-5.9%), kinetic (7.1-7.2%) and potential (5.4-6.7%) energy, peak (12.9-19.1%) and mean (33.2-35.8%) normalized rate of force development (RFD) following the EB warm-up. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in peak concentric knee angular velocities (3.1-4.1%) and mean concentric VL EMG activity (27.5-33.4%) following the EB warm-up. Discussion: The use of heavy squat lifts with EB increases vertical jump performance following a comprehensive warm-up. The use of EB manipulates the loading characteristics of the squat lift by reducing the effective load near the “sticking point”. This modification in loading allows the athlete to operate at near-maximal levels for a greater proportion of the movement to enhance muscle force output and elicit a greater dynamic muscle performance, which likely provides a greater loading stimulus and may be a more effective training tool even when comprehensive task-specific warm-up is performed.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2017
Event22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS) - Essen, Germany
Duration: 7 Jul 2017 → …
http://www.sport-science.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=742

Conference

Conference22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS)
Period7/07/17 → …
Internet address

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Exercise
Weights and Measures
Electromyography
Quadriceps Muscle
Athletes
Muscles
Lower Extremity
Knee Joint
Mechanics
Biomechanical Phenomena
Knee

Cite this

Mina, M. A., Blazevich, A. J., Tsatalas, T., Giakas, G., Seitz, L. B., Hooton, A., & Kay, A. D. (2017). The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance. Abstract from 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), .
Mina, M A ; Blazevich, Anthony J ; Tsatalas, T ; Giakas, G ; Seitz, Laurent B ; Hooton, A ; Kay, Anthony D. / The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance. Abstract from 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), .
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title = "The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance",
abstract = "Introduction: The back squat exercise is a fundamental exercise for the development of lower limb strength and power. However, in successful attempts of one repetition maximum (1-RM), the upward barbell movement decelerates for a short period referred to as the “sticking point”. The inclusion of elastic bands (EB) minimises the loading during the early concentric phase, while maintaining average loading throughout the lift may limit the impact of the sticking point and enables the athlete to work more closely to maximal throughout a greater range of the lift. Objective: To examine the influence of free-weight resistance (FWR) and EB squat exercise following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent vertical jump (VJ) performance. Hypothesis: The use of EB during squatting following a comprehensive warm-up would:- (a) enhance subsequent VJ performance; (b) alter VJ mechanics; and (c) increase the neuromuscular activity of the lower limb extensor muscles, when compared to FWR. Methods: Fifteen active men (n=15) visited the laboratory on two occasions under experimental conditions (FWR or EB). After completing a comprehensive warm-up procedure, three maximal VJs were performed and then three consecutive back squat repetitions were completed at 85{\%} of 1-RM using either FWR or EB. Three VJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min and 12 min later. During the VJs, knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force data and vastus medialis (VM), vastus (VL) lateralis and gluteus maximus (Glut) electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously using 3D motion, force platform, and EMG techniques, respectively. Results: No change in any variable was found after the FWR warm-up (p > 0.05). Significant increases (p < 0.05) were detected in CVJ height (5.3-6.5{\%}), net impulse (2.7-3.3{\%}), take-off velocity (2.7-3.8{\%}), peak power (4.4-5.9{\%}), kinetic (7.1-7.2{\%}) and potential (5.4-6.7{\%}) energy, peak (12.9-19.1{\%}) and mean (33.2-35.8{\%}) normalized rate of force development (RFD) following the EB warm-up. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in peak concentric knee angular velocities (3.1-4.1{\%}) and mean concentric VL EMG activity (27.5-33.4{\%}) following the EB warm-up. Discussion: The use of heavy squat lifts with EB increases vertical jump performance following a comprehensive warm-up. The use of EB manipulates the loading characteristics of the squat lift by reducing the effective load near the “sticking point”. This modification in loading allows the athlete to operate at near-maximal levels for a greater proportion of the movement to enhance muscle force output and elicit a greater dynamic muscle performance, which likely provides a greater loading stimulus and may be a more effective training tool even when comprehensive task-specific warm-up is performed.",
author = "Mina, {M A} and Blazevich, {Anthony J} and T Tsatalas and G Giakas and Seitz, {Laurent B} and A Hooton and Kay, {Anthony D}",
year = "2017",
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note = "22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS) ; Conference date: 07-07-2017",
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Mina, MA, Blazevich, AJ, Tsatalas, T, Giakas, G, Seitz, LB, Hooton, A & Kay, AD 2017, 'The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance' 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), 7/07/17, .

The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance. / Mina, M A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Tsatalas, T; Giakas, G; Seitz, Laurent B; Hooton, A; Kay, Anthony D.

2017. Abstract from 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), .

Research output: Contribution to conference typesAbstractResearchpeer-review

TY - CONF

T1 - The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance

AU - Mina, M A

AU - Blazevich, Anthony J

AU - Tsatalas, T

AU - Giakas, G

AU - Seitz, Laurent B

AU - Hooton, A

AU - Kay, Anthony D

PY - 2017/7/7

Y1 - 2017/7/7

N2 - Introduction: The back squat exercise is a fundamental exercise for the development of lower limb strength and power. However, in successful attempts of one repetition maximum (1-RM), the upward barbell movement decelerates for a short period referred to as the “sticking point”. The inclusion of elastic bands (EB) minimises the loading during the early concentric phase, while maintaining average loading throughout the lift may limit the impact of the sticking point and enables the athlete to work more closely to maximal throughout a greater range of the lift. Objective: To examine the influence of free-weight resistance (FWR) and EB squat exercise following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent vertical jump (VJ) performance. Hypothesis: The use of EB during squatting following a comprehensive warm-up would:- (a) enhance subsequent VJ performance; (b) alter VJ mechanics; and (c) increase the neuromuscular activity of the lower limb extensor muscles, when compared to FWR. Methods: Fifteen active men (n=15) visited the laboratory on two occasions under experimental conditions (FWR or EB). After completing a comprehensive warm-up procedure, three maximal VJs were performed and then three consecutive back squat repetitions were completed at 85% of 1-RM using either FWR or EB. Three VJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min and 12 min later. During the VJs, knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force data and vastus medialis (VM), vastus (VL) lateralis and gluteus maximus (Glut) electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously using 3D motion, force platform, and EMG techniques, respectively. Results: No change in any variable was found after the FWR warm-up (p > 0.05). Significant increases (p < 0.05) were detected in CVJ height (5.3-6.5%), net impulse (2.7-3.3%), take-off velocity (2.7-3.8%), peak power (4.4-5.9%), kinetic (7.1-7.2%) and potential (5.4-6.7%) energy, peak (12.9-19.1%) and mean (33.2-35.8%) normalized rate of force development (RFD) following the EB warm-up. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in peak concentric knee angular velocities (3.1-4.1%) and mean concentric VL EMG activity (27.5-33.4%) following the EB warm-up. Discussion: The use of heavy squat lifts with EB increases vertical jump performance following a comprehensive warm-up. The use of EB manipulates the loading characteristics of the squat lift by reducing the effective load near the “sticking point”. This modification in loading allows the athlete to operate at near-maximal levels for a greater proportion of the movement to enhance muscle force output and elicit a greater dynamic muscle performance, which likely provides a greater loading stimulus and may be a more effective training tool even when comprehensive task-specific warm-up is performed.

AB - Introduction: The back squat exercise is a fundamental exercise for the development of lower limb strength and power. However, in successful attempts of one repetition maximum (1-RM), the upward barbell movement decelerates for a short period referred to as the “sticking point”. The inclusion of elastic bands (EB) minimises the loading during the early concentric phase, while maintaining average loading throughout the lift may limit the impact of the sticking point and enables the athlete to work more closely to maximal throughout a greater range of the lift. Objective: To examine the influence of free-weight resistance (FWR) and EB squat exercise following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent vertical jump (VJ) performance. Hypothesis: The use of EB during squatting following a comprehensive warm-up would:- (a) enhance subsequent VJ performance; (b) alter VJ mechanics; and (c) increase the neuromuscular activity of the lower limb extensor muscles, when compared to FWR. Methods: Fifteen active men (n=15) visited the laboratory on two occasions under experimental conditions (FWR or EB). After completing a comprehensive warm-up procedure, three maximal VJs were performed and then three consecutive back squat repetitions were completed at 85% of 1-RM using either FWR or EB. Three VJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min and 12 min later. During the VJs, knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force data and vastus medialis (VM), vastus (VL) lateralis and gluteus maximus (Glut) electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously using 3D motion, force platform, and EMG techniques, respectively. Results: No change in any variable was found after the FWR warm-up (p > 0.05). Significant increases (p < 0.05) were detected in CVJ height (5.3-6.5%), net impulse (2.7-3.3%), take-off velocity (2.7-3.8%), peak power (4.4-5.9%), kinetic (7.1-7.2%) and potential (5.4-6.7%) energy, peak (12.9-19.1%) and mean (33.2-35.8%) normalized rate of force development (RFD) following the EB warm-up. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in peak concentric knee angular velocities (3.1-4.1%) and mean concentric VL EMG activity (27.5-33.4%) following the EB warm-up. Discussion: The use of heavy squat lifts with EB increases vertical jump performance following a comprehensive warm-up. The use of EB manipulates the loading characteristics of the squat lift by reducing the effective load near the “sticking point”. This modification in loading allows the athlete to operate at near-maximal levels for a greater proportion of the movement to enhance muscle force output and elicit a greater dynamic muscle performance, which likely provides a greater loading stimulus and may be a more effective training tool even when comprehensive task-specific warm-up is performed.

UR - http://www.sport-science.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=742

M3 - Abstract

ER -

Mina MA, Blazevich AJ, Tsatalas T, Giakas G, Seitz LB, Hooton A et al. The acute effects of free-weight and elastic band back squat exercise on subsequent vertical jump performance. 2017. Abstract from 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), .