A literature review has been undertaken to assess the efficacy of management of Posterior Ankle Impingement Syndrome with an emphasis on sport. The evidence is confined to Level IV and V studies. There is a lack of prospective studies on the natural history of this condition and the outcomes of conservative treatment. Dance dominates the literature accounting for 62% of reported sports. Forty-seven papers have reported on the surgical outcomes of 905 procedures involving both open and artho-endoscopic techniques. 81% of patients required excision of osseous pathology and 42% soft-tissue problems resolving. There is a lack of standardisation of outcome reporting particularly in the open surgery group. However, the complication rates are relatively low: 3.9% for open medial, 12.7% for open lateral and 4.8% for arthro-endocopic surgery. Return to sport appears quicker for all activities in the arthro-endoscopic group but comparison of long term outcomes is more difficult with no evidence supporting superior long term results of one technique over another. Soccer players appear to return more quickly to activity than dancers.
- Posterior ankle impingement syndrome
- Os trigonum
- Flexor hallucis longus tendon
- Stieda's process
- Hindfoot endoscopy