The application of porous materials is increasingly being used in orthopaedic surgery due to its good results. Bone growth within the pores results in excellent mechanical fixation with the bone, as well as good bone regeneration. The pores, in addition to being colonised by bone, produce a decrease in the modulus of elasticity that favours the transfer of loads to the bone. This research shows the results of an experimental study where we have created critical osteoperiosteal defects of 10 mm on rabbit’s radius diaphysis. In one group of 10 rabbits (experimental group) we have implanted a bioactive porous titanium cylinder, and in another group we have allowed spontaneous regeneration (control group). Mechanical tests were performed to assess the material. Image diagnostic techniques (X-ray, scanner and 3D scan: there are no references on the literature with the use of CT-scan in bone defects) and histological and histomorphometric studies post-op and after 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery were performed. All the control cases went through a pseudoarthrosis. In 9 of the 10 cases of the experimental group complete regeneration was observed, with a normal cortical-marrow structure established at 6 months, similar to normal bone. Titanium trabecular reached a bone percentage of bone inside the implant of 49.3% on its surface 3 months post-op, 75.6% at 6 months and 81.3% at 12 months. This porous titanium biomaterial has appropriate characteristics to allow bone ingrowth, and it can be proposed as a bone graft substitute to regenerate bone defects, as a scaffold, or as a coating to achieve implant osteointegration.
- porous titanium
- bone regeneration