Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up

Minas A Mina, Anthony J Blazevich, Themistoklis Tsatalas, D Giles, S Kalotyhos, Giannis Giakas, A Hooton, Anthony David Kay

Research output: Contribution to conference typesAbstractResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction
The inclusion of maximal or sub-maximal muscle actions using elastic bands (EB) in combination with free-weight (FW) resistance can manipulate the loading characteristics of these actions. When performed during a warm-up, short-term increases in force production to further augment performance can occur, a state often referred to as post-activation potentiation. However, these improvements are often reported after limited or no warm-up was imposed. Our aim was to examine the influence of EB resistance following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance.

Methods
Fifteen active men (age = 21.7 ± 1.1 y, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 77.6 ± 2.6 kg) volunteered for the study. On two separate occasions, participants performed a comprehensive warm-up of 5 min cycling, 10 continuous unloaded squats, 5 continuous CMJs at ~70% of maximum, then maximal jumps were performed every 30 s until 3 jumps were within 3% of maximum jump height. Participants then performed 5 repetitions of either EB- or FW-loaded CMJs at 50% 1-RM (35% of load generated from elastic resistance during EB). CMJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min, and 12 min later. During CMJs, motion analysis and two force platforms recorded kinematic and kinetic data, with vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemius medialis electromyograms (EMG) recorded simultaneously.

Results
Significant increases in CMJ height (4.6-8.0%), net impulse (2.1-3.7%), peak power (3.9-5.0%), and peak eccentric kinetic energy (10.0-11.5%) were observed at 30 s and 4 min after EB; no changes were found at 8 min and 12 min. No difference in knee angular velocity, knee flexion angle, rate of force development or EMG activity were found at any time point. No changes were observed in FW.

Discussion
The lack of change in jump performance in FW suggests that the comprehensive warm-up potentiated the neuromuscular system such that subsequent FW contractions provide no further improvement in CMJ performance. Nonetheless, CMJ performance was significantly increased following EB at 30 s and 4 min, with increases in force production consistent with the changes in CMJ height. A number of mechanisms relating to stretch-shorten cycle efficiency may have contributed to the increase in CMJ height, including a more rapid muscle stretch resulting from force potentiation and greater elastic energy storage in the muscle. Regardless of the mechanism, elastic band use may enhance athletic performance even when a full warm-up is completed.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 14 Mar 2019
Event24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS) - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 3 Jul 20196 Jul 2019
http://ecss-congress.eu/2019/19/index.php

Conference

Conference24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS)
CountryCzech Republic
CityPrague
Period3/07/196/07/19
Internet address

Fingerprint

Exercise
Weights and Measures
Quadriceps Muscle
Electromyography
Muscles
Knee
Athletic Performance
Biomechanical Phenomena

Cite this

Mina, M. A., Blazevich, A. J., Tsatalas, T., Giles, D., Kalotyhos, S., Giakas, G., ... Kay, A. D. (Accepted/In press). Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up. Abstract from 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Prague, Czech Republic.
Mina, Minas A ; Blazevich, Anthony J ; Tsatalas, Themistoklis ; Giles, D ; Kalotyhos, S ; Giakas, Giannis ; Hooton, A ; Kay, Anthony David. / Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up. Abstract from 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Prague, Czech Republic.
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title = "Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up",
abstract = "IntroductionThe inclusion of maximal or sub-maximal muscle actions using elastic bands (EB) in combination with free-weight (FW) resistance can manipulate the loading characteristics of these actions. When performed during a warm-up, short-term increases in force production to further augment performance can occur, a state often referred to as post-activation potentiation. However, these improvements are often reported after limited or no warm-up was imposed. Our aim was to examine the influence of EB resistance following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance.MethodsFifteen active men (age = 21.7 ± 1.1 y, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 77.6 ± 2.6 kg) volunteered for the study. On two separate occasions, participants performed a comprehensive warm-up of 5 min cycling, 10 continuous unloaded squats, 5 continuous CMJs at ~70{\%} of maximum, then maximal jumps were performed every 30 s until 3 jumps were within 3{\%} of maximum jump height. Participants then performed 5 repetitions of either EB- or FW-loaded CMJs at 50{\%} 1-RM (35{\%} of load generated from elastic resistance during EB). CMJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min, and 12 min later. During CMJs, motion analysis and two force platforms recorded kinematic and kinetic data, with vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemius medialis electromyograms (EMG) recorded simultaneously.ResultsSignificant increases in CMJ height (4.6-8.0{\%}), net impulse (2.1-3.7{\%}), peak power (3.9-5.0{\%}), and peak eccentric kinetic energy (10.0-11.5{\%}) were observed at 30 s and 4 min after EB; no changes were found at 8 min and 12 min. No difference in knee angular velocity, knee flexion angle, rate of force development or EMG activity were found at any time point. No changes were observed in FW.DiscussionThe lack of change in jump performance in FW suggests that the comprehensive warm-up potentiated the neuromuscular system such that subsequent FW contractions provide no further improvement in CMJ performance. Nonetheless, CMJ performance was significantly increased following EB at 30 s and 4 min, with increases in force production consistent with the changes in CMJ height. A number of mechanisms relating to stretch-shorten cycle efficiency may have contributed to the increase in CMJ height, including a more rapid muscle stretch resulting from force potentiation and greater elastic energy storage in the muscle. Regardless of the mechanism, elastic band use may enhance athletic performance even when a full warm-up is completed.",
author = "Mina, {Minas A} and Blazevich, {Anthony J} and Themistoklis Tsatalas and D Giles and S Kalotyhos and Giannis Giakas and A Hooton and Kay, {Anthony David}",
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month = "3",
day = "14",
language = "English",
note = "24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS) ; Conference date: 03-07-2019 Through 06-07-2019",
url = "http://ecss-congress.eu/2019/19/index.php",

}

Mina, MA, Blazevich, AJ, Tsatalas, T, Giles, D, Kalotyhos, S, Giakas, G, Hooton, A & Kay, AD 2019, 'Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up' 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Prague, Czech Republic, 3/07/19 - 6/07/19, .

Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up. / Mina, Minas A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Tsatalas, Themistoklis; Giles, D; Kalotyhos, S; Giakas, Giannis; Hooton, A; Kay, Anthony David.

2019. Abstract from 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Prague, Czech Republic.

Research output: Contribution to conference typesAbstractResearchpeer-review

TY - CONF

T1 - Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up

AU - Mina, Minas A

AU - Blazevich, Anthony J

AU - Tsatalas, Themistoklis

AU - Giles, D

AU - Kalotyhos, S

AU - Giakas, Giannis

AU - Hooton, A

AU - Kay, Anthony David

PY - 2019/3/14

Y1 - 2019/3/14

N2 - IntroductionThe inclusion of maximal or sub-maximal muscle actions using elastic bands (EB) in combination with free-weight (FW) resistance can manipulate the loading characteristics of these actions. When performed during a warm-up, short-term increases in force production to further augment performance can occur, a state often referred to as post-activation potentiation. However, these improvements are often reported after limited or no warm-up was imposed. Our aim was to examine the influence of EB resistance following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance.MethodsFifteen active men (age = 21.7 ± 1.1 y, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 77.6 ± 2.6 kg) volunteered for the study. On two separate occasions, participants performed a comprehensive warm-up of 5 min cycling, 10 continuous unloaded squats, 5 continuous CMJs at ~70% of maximum, then maximal jumps were performed every 30 s until 3 jumps were within 3% of maximum jump height. Participants then performed 5 repetitions of either EB- or FW-loaded CMJs at 50% 1-RM (35% of load generated from elastic resistance during EB). CMJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min, and 12 min later. During CMJs, motion analysis and two force platforms recorded kinematic and kinetic data, with vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemius medialis electromyograms (EMG) recorded simultaneously.ResultsSignificant increases in CMJ height (4.6-8.0%), net impulse (2.1-3.7%), peak power (3.9-5.0%), and peak eccentric kinetic energy (10.0-11.5%) were observed at 30 s and 4 min after EB; no changes were found at 8 min and 12 min. No difference in knee angular velocity, knee flexion angle, rate of force development or EMG activity were found at any time point. No changes were observed in FW.DiscussionThe lack of change in jump performance in FW suggests that the comprehensive warm-up potentiated the neuromuscular system such that subsequent FW contractions provide no further improvement in CMJ performance. Nonetheless, CMJ performance was significantly increased following EB at 30 s and 4 min, with increases in force production consistent with the changes in CMJ height. A number of mechanisms relating to stretch-shorten cycle efficiency may have contributed to the increase in CMJ height, including a more rapid muscle stretch resulting from force potentiation and greater elastic energy storage in the muscle. Regardless of the mechanism, elastic band use may enhance athletic performance even when a full warm-up is completed.

AB - IntroductionThe inclusion of maximal or sub-maximal muscle actions using elastic bands (EB) in combination with free-weight (FW) resistance can manipulate the loading characteristics of these actions. When performed during a warm-up, short-term increases in force production to further augment performance can occur, a state often referred to as post-activation potentiation. However, these improvements are often reported after limited or no warm-up was imposed. Our aim was to examine the influence of EB resistance following a comprehensive warm-up on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance.MethodsFifteen active men (age = 21.7 ± 1.1 y, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 77.6 ± 2.6 kg) volunteered for the study. On two separate occasions, participants performed a comprehensive warm-up of 5 min cycling, 10 continuous unloaded squats, 5 continuous CMJs at ~70% of maximum, then maximal jumps were performed every 30 s until 3 jumps were within 3% of maximum jump height. Participants then performed 5 repetitions of either EB- or FW-loaded CMJs at 50% 1-RM (35% of load generated from elastic resistance during EB). CMJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min, and 12 min later. During CMJs, motion analysis and two force platforms recorded kinematic and kinetic data, with vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemius medialis electromyograms (EMG) recorded simultaneously.ResultsSignificant increases in CMJ height (4.6-8.0%), net impulse (2.1-3.7%), peak power (3.9-5.0%), and peak eccentric kinetic energy (10.0-11.5%) were observed at 30 s and 4 min after EB; no changes were found at 8 min and 12 min. No difference in knee angular velocity, knee flexion angle, rate of force development or EMG activity were found at any time point. No changes were observed in FW.DiscussionThe lack of change in jump performance in FW suggests that the comprehensive warm-up potentiated the neuromuscular system such that subsequent FW contractions provide no further improvement in CMJ performance. Nonetheless, CMJ performance was significantly increased following EB at 30 s and 4 min, with increases in force production consistent with the changes in CMJ height. A number of mechanisms relating to stretch-shorten cycle efficiency may have contributed to the increase in CMJ height, including a more rapid muscle stretch resulting from force potentiation and greater elastic energy storage in the muscle. Regardless of the mechanism, elastic band use may enhance athletic performance even when a full warm-up is completed.

UR - http://ecss-congress.eu/2019/19/

M3 - Abstract

ER -

Mina MA, Blazevich AJ, Tsatalas T, Giles D, Kalotyhos S, Giakas G et al. Variable, but not free-weight, loaded countermovement jump exercise potentiates jump performance following a comprehensive task-specific warm-up. 2019. Abstract from 24th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), Prague, Czech Republic.