ObjectiveProspective data on the associations between vitamin D intake and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality are limited and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between vitamin D intake and CVD risk and all-cause mortality in the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study.DesignThe associations of vitamin D intake with CVD risk markers were examined cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at 5-year, 10-year and >20-year follow-ups. In addition, the predictive value of vitamin D intake for CVD events and all-cause mortality after >20 years of follow-up was examined. Logistic regression and general linear regression were used for data analysis.SettingParticipants in the UK.SubjectsMen (n 452) who were free from CVD and type 2 diabetes at recruitment.ResultsHigher vitamin D intake was associated with increased HDL cholesterol (P=0·003) and pulse pressure (P=0·04) and decreased total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol (P=0·008) cross-sectionally at baseline, but the associations were lost during follow-up. Furthermore, higher vitamin D intake was associated with decreased concentration of plasma TAG at baseline (P=0·01) and at the 5-year (P=0·01), but not the 10-year examination. After >20 years of follow-up, vitamin D was not associated with stroke (n 72), myocardial infarctions (n 142), heart failure (n 43) or all-cause mortality (n 281), but was positively associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (P=0·03).ConclusionsThe study supports associations of higher vitamin D intake with lower fasting plasma TAG and higher diastolic blood pressure.