Eye-Tracking Assistive Technologies for Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Hilary Edughele, Yinghui Zhang, Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki, Quoc-Tuan Vien, Haley Morris-Cafiero, Michael Opoku Agyeman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS, is a progressive nervous system disorder
that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in the loss of muscle control. For individuals
with ALS, where mobility is limited to the movement of the eyes, the use of eye-tracking-based applications
can be applied to achieve some basic tasks with certain digital interfaces. This paper presents a review of
existing eye-tracking software and hardware through which eye-tracking their application is sketched as
an assistive technology to cope with ALS. Eye-tracking also provides a suitable alternative as control of
game elements. Furthermore, artificial intelligence has been utilized to improve eye-tracking technology
with significant improvement in calibration and accuracy. Gaps in literature are highlighted in the study to
offer a direction for future research.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date29 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2022


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