The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a major atmospheric circulation feature shown to control winter precipitation amounts in Western Europe. In this short study the incorporation of absolute pressure values in the Azores and Iceland in the NAO is evaluated. In addition a comparison between the surface-based and a mid-tropospheric (500 hPa) index is made. Improvement in explanation of rainfall variability is achieved for some regions. The upper air index is found to have a stronger association with British Isles winter precipitation than the NAO itself.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Applied Meteorology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Mar 2000|