Investigating the Adoption Barriers to Industry 4.0 Technologies in Farmer Producer Organisations

C. Ganeshkumar*, Nitish Kumar Singh, Rahul S Mor*, Anupama Panghal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) are collectives formed by farmers, typically small and marginal farmers, intending to improve their economic and social conditions. This study explores the adoption barriers to Industry 4.0 technologies in FPOs and establishes the interrelationships between adoption variables for sustainable growth and income support. Twenty-eight barriers were identified after a literature review, and expert opinions were further scrutinized into five themes. The interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach was applied to explore inter-relationships between the barrier variables for industry 4.0 technology in FPO. Matrice d’Impacts Croises-multiplication Applique’ and Classement (MICMAC) analysis has been executed to classify the barriers according to their dependence and driving power. Out of the identified 28 barriers, five hinder FPO's adoption to Industry 4.0 technologies, and the financial barrier is the most significant barrier that leads to the highest driving power. Thus, this study offers a roadmap for FPOs and policymakers to support farmers towards start-ups, and a focused approach to eradicate the financial barriers will boost Industry 4.0 adoption.
Original languageEnglish
Journal International Journal of Global Business and Competitiveness
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:


  • Industry 4.0
  • Adoption Barriers
  • Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs)
  • Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM)
  • Agri-food Sector


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