A Novel Spatial Domain Semi-fragile Steganography Algorithm and Authentication Method

Nikolaos G. Bakaoukas, Anastasios G. Bakaoukas

Research output: Contribution to Book/ReportConference Contributionpeer-review


In this paper, a novel spatial domain semi-fragile steganography method is presented that takes full advantage of the Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding approach and transforms it into a true three-layer data embedding technique. The method also takes advantage of the Parity Check method for error detection, and considerably expands and improves upon the proposed parity check approach to steganography. After application of the technique proposed in this paper, a stego-image is produced which contains a minimum of embedding artefacts due to the additional data embedded into the existing image data and which are not easily detectable by statistical analysis driven steganalysis tools designed to operate at the spatial domain. As a result, utilisation of embedding artefacts from steganalysis algorithms realising both Visual and Statistical attacks in the spatial domain becomes subject to optimum or as close to optimum as possible embedding parameters, gradually impossible.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)978303001177-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-01176-5
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Nov 2018

Publication series

NameAdvances in Intelligent Systems and Computing


  • Image content authentication
  • Linear regression
  • Semi-fragile watermarking
  • Steganography
  • Stego-image


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