Extending the performance of hybrid NoCs beyond the limitations of network heterogeneity

Michael Opoku Agyeman, Wen Zong, Alex Yakovlev, Kin-Fai Tong, Terrence Mak

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


To meet the performance and scalability demands of the fast-paced technological growth towards exascale and Big-Data processing with the performance bottleneck of conventional metal based interconnects (wireline), alternative interconnect fabrics such as inhomogeneous three-dimensional integrated Network-on-Chip (3D NoC) and hybrid wired-wireless Network-on-Chip (WiNoC) have emanated as a cost-effective solution for emerging System-on-Chip (SoC) design. However, these interconnects trade-off optimized performance for cost by restricting the number of area and power hungry 3D routers and wireless nodes. Moreover, the non-uniform distributed traffic in chip multiprocessor (CMP) demands an on-chip communication infrastructure which can avoid congestion under high traffic conditions while possessing minimal pipeline delay at low-load conditions. To this end, in this paper, we propose a low-latency adaptive router with a low-complexity single-cycle bypassing mechanism to alleviate the performance degradation due to the slow 2D routers in such emerging hybrid NoCs. The proposed router transmits a flit using dimension-ordered routing (DoR) in the bypass datapath at low-loads. When the output port required for intra-dimension bypassing is not available, the packet is routed adaptively to avoid congestion. The router also has a simplified virtual channel allocation (VA) scheme that yields a non-speculative low-latency pipeline. By combining the low-complexity bypassing technique with adaptive routing, the proposed router is able balance the traffic in hybrid NoCs to achieve low-latency communication under various traffic loads. Simulation shows that, the proposed router can reduce applications’ execution time by an average of 16.9% compared to low-latency routers such as SWIFT. By reducing the latency between 2D routers (or wired nodes) and 3D routers (or wireless nodes) the proposed router can improve performance efficiency in terms of average packet delay by an average of 45% (or 50%) in 3D NoCs (or WiNoCs).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2017


  • Router architecture
  • 3D NoC
  • hybrid wired-wireless network-on-chip
  • surface wave
  • 24 mm-wave
  • WiNoC
  • waveguide


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