Stylized and Photographic Eye Images Do Not Increase Charitable Donations in a Field Experiment

Paul Lennon, Rachel Grant, Tamara Montrose

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


The effects of watching eyes upon prosocial behavior have been explored in various contexts, for example, in relation to charitable donations, honor-system payments and littering. Whilst studies have explored the effects of both photographic and stylized eyes upon prosocial behavior, no study, to our knowledge, has compared stylized eyes to photographic eyes. Here we explored the effects of stylized and photographic eye images upon prosocial behavior assessed via charitable donations in a ‘free cakes’ field experiment. Charitable giving was assessed under six eye image conditions, three stylized eye images (evil eye, eye of Horus, all-seeing eye), one photographic eye image (human eye image) and two control images (geometric shape control, blank control). No difference in the amount of money donated was found between any of the eye image conditions. These results suggest that watching eyes, whether stylized or photographic, are not effective at eliciting prosocial behavior via charitable giving. However, further study contrasting single and paired eye imagery, and exploration of the effects of stylized eye imagery in deterring littering and crime, would be beneficial.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28-31
Number of pages4
JournalLetters on Evolutionary Behavioural Science
Issue number2
Early online date8 Sep 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Sep 2017


  • Eye witness
  • Watching eyes effect
  • Prosociality
  • Field experiments


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