Evidence suggests that black and minority ethnic (BME) midwives are more likely to face fitness to practise hearings than white registrants and BME NHS staff are less likely to be in senior positions. This literature review critically evaluates the literature published since a systematic review on the topic was conducted in 2005. It found that BME nurses and midwives, especially those who registered abroad and subsequently came to live and work in the UK are ‘underemployed’ and consequently expressed feelings of loss of self-confidence. This was further compounded by accounts of excessive scrutiny and punishment. Many felt excluded from white networks of power and opportunities for staff development and promotion. The literature also describes experiences of covert as well as overt racism between the white majority and BME staff as well as ‘horizontal racism’ between BME staff of differing ethnicities.
- Black and minority ethnic nurses
- overseas nurses
- fitness to practise