The COVID-19 virus has impacted all facets of our lives. As a global response to this threat, vaccination programmes have been initiated and administered in numerous nations. The question remains, however, as to whether mass vaccination programmes result in a decrease in the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. In this study, we aim to predict the future number of COVID-19 confirmed cases for the top ten countries with the highest number of vaccinations in the world. A well-known Deep Learning method for time series analysis, namely, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, is applied as the prediction method. Using three evaluation metrics, i.e., Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), we found that the model built by using LSTM networks could give a good prediction of the future number and trend of COVID-19 confirmed cases in the considered countries. Two different scenarios are employed, namely: ‘All Time’, which includes all historical data; and ‘Before Vaccination’, which excludes data collected after the mass vaccination programme began. The average MAPE scores for the ‘All Time’ and ‘Before Vaccination’ scenarios are 5.977% and 10.388%, respectively. Overall, the results show that the mass vaccination programme has a positive impact on decreasing and controlling the spread of the COVID-19 disease in those countries, as evidenced by decreasing future trends after the programme was implemented.
Bibliographical note© 2023 The Authors.
- Confirmed cases
- Deep learning
- Mass vaccination