Impact of management structure on development programs: Lessons from social marketing of family planning in Pakistan

Nayyer Samad, Sonny Nwankwo, Ayantunji Gbadamosi

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticlepeer-review


This article examines the impact of management structure on the performance of population control program in Pakistan. Specifically, it explores the relationship between management structures and program outcomes in social marketing program (SMP) contexts. A combination of pattern matching and explanation building techniques for embedded case analysis was used and the data brought together in a reasoned form to provide an analysis and explanation of the focused topic. Management structures adopted for various SMPs for family planning were defined directly or indirectly by the funding agencies, and these, in turn, led to varying implementation difficulties. The Pakistani experience shows that donor agencies’ involvement in operational issues has little positive impact on the program outcome. Essentially, the findings afford program managers evidence-based insights in developing new structure and avoiding failed ones. It emphasizes that, in countries where more than one SMP are in operation, the stakeholders need to assess program components circumspectly to avoid duplication. Overall, the article provides strategic directions to stakeholders on how varying organizations handling social marketing projects could enhance operational effectiveness of the program. It emphasizes the need for improved coordination, devolution of responsibilities, alignment of organizational goals with the program goals, and effective involvement of local stakeholders in program planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-51
Number of pages12
JournalSocial Marketing Quarterly
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Development
  • Family health intervention
  • Management structure
  • Pakistan
  • Social marketing program


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